Integrative Molecular Phenotyping
INTEGRATIVE MOLECULAR
PHENOTYPING
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY

PubMed

PubMed
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=metabolomics
Updated: 2 hours 56 min ago

Metabolomics study reveals the potential evidence of metabolic reprogramming towards the Warburg effect in precancerous lesions.

Thu, 04/02/2021 - 13:41
Related Articles Metabolomics study reveals the potential evidence of metabolic reprogramming towards the Warburg effect in precancerous lesions. J Cancer. 2021;12(5):1563-1574 Authors: Chen X, Yi C, Yang MJ, Sun X, Liu X, Ma H, Li Y, Li H, Wang C, He Y, Chen G, Chen S, Yu L, Yu D Abstract Background: Most tumors have an enhanced glycolysis flux, even when oxygen is available, called the aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. Metabolic reprogramming promotes cancer progression, and is even related to the tumorigenesis. However, it is not clear whether the observed metabolic changes act as a driver or a bystander in cancer development. Methods: In this study, the metabolic characteristics of oral precancerous cells and cervical precancerous lesions were analyzed by metabolomics, and the expression of glycolytic enzymes in cervical precancerous lesions was evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results: In total, 115 and 23 metabolites with reliable signals were identified in oral cells and cervical tissues, respectively. Based on the metabolome, oral precancerous cell DOK could be clearly separated from normal human oral epithelial cells (HOEC) and oral cancer cells. Four critical differential metabolites (pyruvate, glutamine, methionine and lysine) were identified between DOK and HOEC. Metabolic profiles could clearly distinguish cervical precancerous lesions from normal cervical epithelium and cervical cancer. Compared with normal cervical epithelium, the glucose consumption and lactate production increased in cervical precancerous lesions. The expression of glycolytic enzymes LDHA, HK II and PKM2 showed an increased tendency in cervical precancerous lesions compared with normal cervical epithelium. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cell metabolism may be reprogrammed at the early stage of tumorigenesis, implying the contribution of metabolic reprogramming to the development of tumor. PMID: 33532002 [PubMed]

Differences in milk metabolites in Malnad Gidda (Bos indicus) cows reared under pasture-based feeding system.

Thu, 04/02/2021 - 13:41
Related Articles Differences in milk metabolites in Malnad Gidda (Bos indicus) cows reared under pasture-based feeding system. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 02;11(1):2831 Authors: Ashokan M, Ramesha KP, Hallur S, Karthikkeyan G, Rana E, Azharuddin N, Raj SR, Jeyakumar S, Kumaresan A, Kataktalware MA, Das DN, Keshava Prasad TS Abstract The milk and milk products from cows reared under grazing system are believed to be healthier and hence have high demand compared to milk from cows reared in the non-grazing system. However, the effect of grazing on milk metabolites, specifically lipids has not been fully understood. In this study, we used acetonitrile precipitation and methanol:chloroform methods for extracting the milk metabolites followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) run to identify the different metabolites between the milk of grazing and non-grazing early lactating Malnad Gidda cows. Various carbohydrates, amino acids, nucleosides and vitamin derivatives were found to be differentially abundant in grazing cows. A total of 35 metabolites were differentially regulated (fold change above 1.5) between the two groups. Tyrosyl-threonine, histidinyl-cysteine, 1-methyladenine, L-cysteine and selenocysteine showed fold change above 3 in grazing cows. The lipid profile of milk showed a lesser difference between grazing and non-grazing cows as compared to polar metabolites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest inventory of milk metabolomics data of an Indian cattle (Bos indicus) breed. We believe that our study would help to emerge a field of Nutri-metabolomics and veterinary omics research. PMID: 33531582 [PubMed - in process]

A metabolomic approach to target antimalarial metabolites in the Artemisia annua fungal endophytes.

Thu, 04/02/2021 - 13:41
Related Articles A metabolomic approach to target antimalarial metabolites in the Artemisia annua fungal endophytes. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 02;11(1):2770 Authors: Alhadrami HA, Sayed AM, El-Gendy AO, Shamikh YI, Gaber Y, Bakeer W, Sheirf NH, Attia EZ, Shaban GM, Khalifa BA, Ngwa CJ, Pradel G, Rateb ME, Hassan HM, Alkhalifah DHM, Abdelmohsen UR, Hozzein WN Abstract Fungal endophytes are a major source of anti-infective agents and other medically relevant compounds. However, their classical blinded-chemical investigation is a challenging process due to their highly complex chemical makeup. Thus, utilizing cheminformatics tools such as metabolomics and computer-aided modelling is of great help deal with such complexity and select the most probable bioactive candidates. In the present study, we have explored the fungal endophytes associated with the well-known antimalarial medicinal plant Artemisia annua for their production of further antimalarial agents. Based on the preliminary antimalarial screening of these endophytes and using LC-HRMS-based metabolomics and multivariate analyses, we suggested different potentially active metabolites (compounds 1-8). Further in silico investigation using the neural-network-based prediction software PASS led to the selection of a group of quinone derivatives (compounds 1-5) as the most possible active hits. Subsequent in vitro validation revealed emodin (1) and physcion (2) to be potent antimalarial candidates with IC50 values of 0.9 and 1.9 µM, respectively. Our approach in the present investigation therefore can be applied as a preliminary evaluation step in the natural products drug discovery, which in turn can facilitate the isolation of selected metabolites notably the biologically active ones. PMID: 33531542 [PubMed - in process]

Lower Airway Dysbiosis Exacerbates Lung Cancer.

Thu, 04/02/2021 - 13:41
Related Articles Lower Airway Dysbiosis Exacerbates Lung Cancer. Cancer Discov. 2021 Feb;11(2):224-226 Authors: Zitvogel L, Kroemer G Abstract Accumulating evidence supports the impact of the gut microbiota on the clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapies against extraintestinal tumors, but it has not yet been addressed whether local commensals could also dictate the prognosis of patients with cancer. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Tsay and colleagues demonstrate that the lower airway microbiota may harbor oral commensals that turn on IL17-mediated inflammatory pathways and reprogram host transcription to exacerbate lung cancer progression.See related article by Tsay et al., p. 293. PMID: 33531424 [PubMed - in process]

Untargeted Lipidomic Analysis of Plasma from High-fat Diet-induced Obese Rats Using UHPLC-Linear Trap Quadrupole-Orbitrap MS.

Thu, 04/02/2021 - 13:41
Related Articles Untargeted Lipidomic Analysis of Plasma from High-fat Diet-induced Obese Rats Using UHPLC-Linear Trap Quadrupole-Orbitrap MS. Anal Sci. 2020 Jul 10;36(7):821-828 Authors: Gowda SGB, Gao ZJ, Chen Z, Abe T, Hori S, Fukiya S, Ishizuka S, Yokota A, Chiba H, Hui SP Abstract High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is a primary risk factor for serious health problems. Although much research has been performed at the genomic level, lipidomic studies were limited. In this study, we aim to obtain a comprehensive profile of circulating plasma lipids, which are altered in rodent rat obesity by untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rats fed with HFD for 8 weeks had increased body weight, liver and adipose tissue weight. The analysis results revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their corresponding phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylserine were significantly decreased in rats fed with HFD. In contrast, less unsaturated and ether type phosphatidylglycerols were increased. The triacylglycerides (TAGs) having saturated FA were increased in the HFD condition, whereas TAGs having PUFA were decreased. The levels of many plasma lipids were altered, and interestingly PUFA derived lipids were negatively associated with obesity. This signifies the importance of a PUFAs enriched diet to overwhelm obesity associated diseases. PMID: 31956159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pheophorbide a May Regulate Jasmonate Signaling during Dark-Induced Senescence.

Thu, 04/02/2021 - 13:41
Related Articles Pheophorbide a May Regulate Jasmonate Signaling during Dark-Induced Senescence. Plant Physiol. 2020 02;182(2):776-791 Authors: Aubry S, Fankhauser N, Ovinnikov S, Pružinská A, Stirnemann M, Zienkiewicz K, Herrfurth C, Feussner I, Hörtensteiner S Abstract Chlorophyll degradation is one of the most visible signs of leaf senescence. During senescence, chlorophyll is degraded in the multistep pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO)/phyllobilin pathway. This pathway is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level, allowing coordinated and efficient remobilization of nitrogen toward sink organs. Using a combination of transcriptome and metabolite analyses during dark-induced senescence of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants deficient in key steps of the PAO/phyllobilin pathway, we show an unanticipated role for one of the pathway intermediates, i.e. pheophorbide a Both jasmonic acid-related gene expression and jasmonic acid precursors specifically accumulated in pao1, a mutant deficient in PAO. We propose that pheophorbide a, the last intact porphyrin intermediate of chlorophyll degradation and a unique pathway "bottleneck," has been recruited as a signaling molecule of chloroplast metabolic status. Our work challenges the assumption that chlorophyll breakdown is merely a result of senescence, and proposes that the flux of pheophorbide a through the pathway acts in a feed-forward loop that remodels the nuclear transcriptome and controls the pace of chlorophyll degradation in senescing leaves. PMID: 31753845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

metabolomics; +26 new citations

Wed, 03/02/2021 - 13:32
26 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/02/03PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

metabolomics; +45 new citations

Tue, 02/02/2021 - 13:21
45 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: metabolomics These pubmed results were generated on 2021/02/02PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Commentary: Jumpstarting metabolomics and the next generation of clinically useful gut-brain microbiome research.

Tue, 02/02/2021 - 10:20
Related Articles Commentary: Jumpstarting metabolomics and the next generation of clinically useful gut-brain microbiome research. Brain Behav Immun. 2021 Jan 28;: Authors: Severance EG PMID: 33516923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Plasma phosphatidylcholines and vitamin B12/folate levels are possible prognostic biomarkers for progression of Alzheimer's disease.

Tue, 02/02/2021 - 10:20
Related Articles Plasma phosphatidylcholines and vitamin B12/folate levels are possible prognostic biomarkers for progression of Alzheimer's disease. Exp Gerontol. 2021 Jan 28;:111264 Authors: Blasko I, Defrancesco M, Oberacher H, Loacker L, Kemmler G, Marksteiner J, Humpel C Abstract OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice it is important to identify patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who will progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether lipid metabolites and vitamin B12 and folate levels are effective biomarker for an accurate prediction of MCI-to-AD conversion. METHODS: During the standard diagnostic assessment at our memory clinic 48 cognitively healthy subjects and MCI patients were recruited. These participants were followed up after 7-9 years. Blood was collected, various biochemical markers (including vitamin B12 and folate) analysed and plasma lipids were measured using the AbsoluteIDQ p150 Kit. RESULTS: There was no significant change in lipid levels in controls converting to MCI. However, we found significant changes in five lipids in converters from controls to AD. Interestingly, also two lipids were altered when MCI re-converted to controls. Vitamin B12 levels were not affected by conversion but folate levels significantly decreased in MCI-AD conversion. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study provides evidence that some plasma lipids are significantly altered in subjects converting to AD. Future studies will investigate whether the peripheral lipid changes correspond with changes in the brain during the course of the disease. Although this is a small study, there are indications that lipids may be suitable as prognostic markers. PMID: 33516907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Plant metabolomics for studying the effect of two insecticides on comprehensive constituents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.

Tue, 02/02/2021 - 10:20
Related Articles Plant metabolomics for studying the effect of two insecticides on comprehensive constituents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. Chin J Nat Med. 2021 Jan;19(1):70-80 Authors: Pan HQ, Zhou H, Miao S, Guo DA, Zhang XL, Hu Q, Mao XH, Ji S Abstract Pesticides' overuse and misuse have been reported to induce ingredient variations in herbal medicine, which is now gaining attention in the medicinal field as a form of alternative medicine. To date, available studies on pesticide-induced ingredient variations of herbal medicine are limited only on a few compounds and remain most others unexamined. In this study, a plant metabolomics-based strategy was performed to systematically explore the effects of two frequently used insecticides on the comprehensive constituents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF), the flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Field trials were designed on a cultivating plot of L. japonica with controls and treatments of imidacloprid (IMI) and compound flonicamid and acetamiprid (CFA). Unbiased metabolite profiling was conducted by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. After data pretreatment by automatic extraction and screening, a data matrix of metabolite features was submitted for statistical analyses. Consequently, 29 metabolic markers, including chlorogenic acids, iridoids and organic acid-glucosides were obtained and characterized. The relative quantitative assay was subsequently performed to monitor their variations across flowering developments. This is the first study that systematically explored the insecticide-induced metabolite variations of LJF while taking into account the inherent variability of flowering development. The results were beneficial for holistic quality assessment of LJF and significant for guiding scientific use of pesticides in the large-scale cultivation. PMID: 33516454 [PubMed - in process]

Deletion of fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2) in the mouse liver changes the metabolic landscape by increasing the expression of PPARα-regulated genes.

Tue, 02/02/2021 - 10:20
Related Articles Deletion of fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2) in the mouse liver changes the metabolic landscape by increasing the expression of PPARα-regulated genes. J Biol Chem. 2020 Apr 24;295(17):5737-5750 Authors: Perez VM, Gabell J, Behrens M, Wase N, DiRusso CC, Black PN Abstract Fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2) is highly expressed in the liver, small intestine, and kidney, where it functions in both the transport of exogenous long-chain fatty acids and the activation of very-long-chain fatty acids. Here, using a murine model, we investigated the phenotypic impacts of deleting FATP2, followed by a transcriptomic analysis using unbiased RNA-Seq to identify concomitant changes in the liver transcriptome. WT and FATP2-null (Fatp2-/-) mice (5 weeks) were maintained on a standard chow diet for 6 weeks. The Fatp2-/- mice had reduced weight gain, lowered serum triglyceride, and increased serum cholesterol levels and attenuated dietary fatty acid absorption. Transcriptomic analysis of the liver revealed 258 differentially expressed genes in male Fatp2-/- mice and a total of 91 in female Fatp2-/- mice. These genes mapped to the following gene ontology categories: fatty acid degradation, peroxisome biogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and retinol and arachidonic acid metabolism. Targeted RT-quantitative PCR verified the altered expression of selected genes. Of note, most of the genes with increased expression were known to be regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), suggesting that FATP2 activity is linked to a PPARα-specific proximal ligand. Targeted metabolomic experiments in the Fatp2-/- liver revealed increases of total C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 fatty acids; increases in lipoxin A4 and prostaglandin J2; and a decrease in 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. We conclude that the expression of FATP2 in the liver broadly affects the metabolic landscape through PPARα, indicating that FATP2 provides an important role in liver lipid metabolism through its transport or activation activities. PMID: 33516311 [PubMed - in process]

Hepatoprotective effects of oridonin against bisphenol A induced liver injury in rats via inhibiting the activity of xanthione oxidase.

Sun, 31/01/2021 - 13:04
Related Articles Hepatoprotective effects of oridonin against bisphenol A induced liver injury in rats via inhibiting the activity of xanthione oxidase. Sci Total Environ. 2021 Jan 21;770:145301 Authors: Wang X, Gao M, Wang Z, Cui W, Zhang J, Zhang W, Xia Y, Wei B, Tang Y, Xu X Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used to manufacture packaging materials for various daily necessities and causes harmful effects in organs, especially liver injury, by generating oxidative stress. Oridonin, an active diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens (Hemsl.) Hara, has been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. However, the role of oridonin in BPA--induced liver injury and its potential protective mechanism have not been well characterized. In this research, we explored the metabolic alterations in the liver tissue of rats after exposure to BPA with or without pretreatment with oridonin for 14 days by metabolomics analysis based on UPLC-MS/MS. Rats were randomly divided into groups as follows: Control, Vehicle, Oridonin (10 mg/kg), Bisphenol A (500 mg/kg), bisphenol A + Oridonin (500 + 10 mg/kg), Bisphenol A + Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (500 + 40 mg/kg). The biochemical results showed that oridonin significantly reduced the levels of AST and ALT (P < 0.05), ameliorated the abnormal histopathological changes and reduced hepatic apoptosis compared with the BPA group. Furthermore, metabolomics results revealed that purine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were reprogrammed, based on 28 identified significant differential metabolites among the Vehicle, BPA and BPA + oridonin groups. In-depth studies demonstrated that pretreatment with oridonin may play a protective role by restoring BPA-induced changes in oxidative stress and the activity of oxidase (XOD) (P < 0.05). Additionally, oridonin could inhibit the activity of XOD by binding to it, therefore decreasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, upregulating the content of hypoxanthine and xanthine, and reducing the level of uric acid in the liver (P < 0.05). This research presents the potential protective mechanisms of oridonin on BPA-induced liver injury at the metabolic level, which might be used to identify new protective agents that prevent BPA-induced liver injury. PMID: 33515877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Studying Autism Using Untargeted Metabolomics in Newborn Screening Samples.

Sun, 31/01/2021 - 13:04
Related Articles Studying Autism Using Untargeted Metabolomics in Newborn Screening Samples. J Mol Neurosci. 2021 Jan 30;: Authors: Courraud J, Ernst M, Svane Laursen S, Hougaard DM, Cohen AS Abstract Main risk factors of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include both genetic and non-genetic factors, especially prenatal and perinatal events. Newborn screening dried blood spot (DBS) samples have great potential for the study of early biochemical markers of disease. To study DBS strengths and limitations in the context of ASD research, we analyzed the metabolomic profiles of newborns later diagnosed with ASD. We performed LC-MS/MS-based untargeted metabolomics on DBS from 37 case-control pairs randomly selected from the iPSYCH sample. After preprocessing using MZmine 2.41, metabolites were putatively annotated using mzCloud, GNPS feature-based molecular networking, and MolNetEnhancer. A total of 4360 mass spectral features were detected, of which 150 (113 unique) could be putatively annotated at a high confidence level. Chemical structure information at a broad level could be retrieved for 1009 metabolites, covering 31 chemical classes. Although no clear distinction between cases and controls was revealed, our method covered many metabolites previously associated with ASD, suggesting that biochemical markers of ASD are present at birth and may be monitored during newborn screening. Additionally, we observed that gestational age, age at sampling, and month of birth influence the metabolomic profiles of newborn DBS, which informs us on the important confounders to address in future studies. PMID: 33515432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A non-targeted LC-MS metabolic profiling of pregnancy: longitudinal evidence from healthy and pre-eclamptic pregnancies.

Sun, 31/01/2021 - 13:04
Related Articles A non-targeted LC-MS metabolic profiling of pregnancy: longitudinal evidence from healthy and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Metabolomics. 2021 Jan 29;17(2):20 Authors: Jääskeläinen T, Kärkkäinen O, Jokkala J, Klåvus A, Heinonen S, Auriola S, Lehtonen M, FINNPEC Core Investigator Group, Hanhineva K, Laivuori H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Maternal metabolism changes substantially during pregnancy. However, few studies have used metabolomics technologies to characterize changes across gestation. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted metabolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of serum differs throughout the pregnancy between pre-eclamptic and healthy women in the FINNPEC (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium) Study. Serum samples were available from early and late pregnancy. RESULTS: Progression of pregnancy had large-scale effects to the serum metabolite profile. Altogether 50 identified metabolites increased and 49 metabolites decreased when samples of early pregnancy were compared to samples of late pregnancy. The metabolic signatures of pregnancy were largely shared in pre-eclamptic and healthy women, only urea, monoacylglyceride 18:1 and glycerophosphocholine were identified to be increased in the pre-eclamptic women when compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the need of large-scale longitudinal metabolomic studies in non-complicated pregnancies before more detailed understanding of metabolism in adverse outcomes could be provided. Our findings are one of the first steps for a broader metabolic understanding of the physiological changes caused by pregnancy per se. PMID: 33515103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Shrimp count size: GC/MS-based metabolomics approach and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) reveal the importance of size in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

Sun, 31/01/2021 - 13:04
Related Articles Shrimp count size: GC/MS-based metabolomics approach and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) reveal the importance of size in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Metabolomics. 2021 Jan 29;17(2):19 Authors: Putri SLE, Suantika G, Situmorang ML, Christina J, Nikijuluw C, Putri SP, Fukusaki E Abstract INTRODUCTION: "Count size" is a term used to represent the number of shrimps in one pound or kilogram that applies globally in the shrimp industry. Based on shrimp body weight, count sizes range over the smallest (> 70) up to the largest size (U15) of shrimp. Large shrimps are considered highly palatable; therefore, they are priced higher than the small shrimps. However, the pricing of shrimp has not been based on scientific findings since there have been no studies reporting the correlation between shrimp quality and shrimp size. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the importance of shrimp size in terms of metabolite profile and sensory properties. METHODS: Nine groups of Litopenaeus vannamei, categorized based on their body weight similarity, were collected from various sampling sites regardless of the difference in days of culture (count size 16/20, 21/25, 26/30, 41/50, and 51/60). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics analysis was employed to characterize their metabolite profiles. Furthermore, a robust PLS regression model was constructed to predict the shrimp size using metabolome data. Following this, the difference in sensory attributes among commercial shrimp count sizes 21/25-41/50 was confirmed using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). RESULTS: Small shrimp (> 70-51/60) had higher accumulation of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids, sugars, and organic acids compared to large shrimps (41/50-16/20). The QDA of commercial count sizes (21/25-41/50) performed by trained panelists showed that sweetness, juiciness, crispness, and red color attributes increased with an increase in shrimp size. Based on the PLS model, proline as a sweet-tasting metabolite also showed an increased level along with the shrimp size. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the importance of shrimp count size with regard to shrimp quality. PMID: 33515101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Nutrigenomics: lessons learned and future perspectives.

Sun, 31/01/2021 - 13:04
Related Articles Nutrigenomics: lessons learned and future perspectives. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Jan 29;: Authors: Brennan L, de Roos B Abstract The omics technologies of metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics are playing an increasingly important role in nutrition science. With the emergence of the concept of precision nutrition and the need to understand individual responses to dietary interventions, it is an opportune time to examine the impact of these tools to date in human nutrition studies. Advances in our mechanistic understanding of dietary interventions were realized through incorporation of metabolomics, proteomics, and, more recently, metagenomics. A common observation across the studies was the low intra-individual variability of the omics measurements and the high inter-individual variation. Harnessing this data for use in the development of precision nutrition will be important. Metabolomics in particular has played a key role in the development of biomarkers of food intake in an effort to enhance the accuracy of dietary assessments. Further work is needed to realize the full potential of such biomarkers and to demonstrate integration with current strategies, with the goal of overcoming the well-established limitations of self-reported approaches. Although many of the nutrigenomic studies performed to date were labelled as proof-of-concept or pilot studies, there is ample evidence to support the use of these technologies in nutrition science. Incorporating omic technologies from the start of study designs will ensure that studies are sufficiently powered for such data. Furthermore, multi-disciplinary collaborations are likely to become even more important to aid analyses and interpretation of the data. PMID: 33515029 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Maternal gut microbiota reflecting poor diet quality is associated with spontaneous preterm birth in a prospective cohort study.

Sun, 31/01/2021 - 13:04
Related Articles Maternal gut microbiota reflecting poor diet quality is associated with spontaneous preterm birth in a prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Jan 29;: Authors: Gershuni V, Li Y, Elovitz M, Li H, Wu GD, Compher CW Abstract BACKGROUND: A processed diet, high in fat and low in fiber, is associated with differences in the gut microbiota and adverse health outcomes in humans; however, little is known about the diet-microbiota relation and its impact on pregnancy. Spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB), a pregnancy outcome with serious short- and long-term consequences, occurs more frequently in black and in obese women in the United States. OBJECTIVES: In a prospective, case-control sample matched for race and obesity (cases = 16, controls = 32), we compared the fecal gut microbiota, fecal and plasma metabolites, and diet in the late second trimester. We hypothesized that a Western diet would be associated with reduced microbiota richness and a metabolic signature predicting incidence of SPTB. METHODS: The fecal microbiota was characterized by 16S-tagged sequencing and untargeted metabolomics was used to analyze both plasma and fecal metabolites. Wilcoxon's rank-sum test was used for the comparison of microbiota genera, α-diversity, fecal and plasma metabolites, and dietary variables between term and SPTB. β-Diversity was analyzed using permutational multivariate ANOVA, and metabolite associations were assessed by module analysis. RESULTS: A decrease in α-diversity was strongly associated with the development of SPTB, especially in the taxonomic class of Betaproteobacteria. Of 824 fecal metabolites, 22 metabolites (mostly lipids) differed between cases and controls (P < 0.01), with greater DHA (22:6n-3) and EPA (20:5n-3) in cases [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.2]. The most significant fecal metabolite module (FDR-adjusted P = 0.008) was dominated by DHA and EPA. Dietary saturated fat (primarily palmitate) intake was greater in cases (31.38 ± 7.37 compared with 26.08 ± 8.62 g, P = 0.045) and was positively correlated with fecal DHA and EPA (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced α-diversity of the gut microbiota and higher excretion of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in stool may provide a novel biomarker signature predicting SPTB in women with a low-fiber, high-fat diet. Further investigation of these markers in a larger sample is needed for validation. PMID: 33515003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Broadening horizons: the role of ferroptosis in cancer.

Sun, 31/01/2021 - 13:04
Related Articles Broadening horizons: the role of ferroptosis in cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2021 Jan 29;: Authors: Chen X, Kang R, Kroemer G, Tang D Abstract The discovery of regulated cell death processes has enabled advances in cancer treatment. In the past decade, ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of regulated cell death driven by excessive lipid peroxidation, has been implicated in the development and therapeutic responses of various types of tumours. Experimental reagents (such as erastin and RSL3), approved drugs (for example, sorafenib, sulfasalazine, statins and artemisinin), ionizing radiation and cytokines (such as IFNγ and TGFβ1) can induce ferroptosis and suppress tumour growth. However, ferroptotic damage can trigger inflammation-associated immunosuppression in the tumour microenvironment, thus favouring tumour growth. The extent to which ferroptosis affects tumour biology is unclear, although several studies have found important correlations between mutations in cancer-relevant genes (for example, RAS and TP53), in genes encoding proteins involved in stress response pathways (such as NFE2L2 signalling, autophagy and hypoxia) and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and responses to treatments that activate ferroptosis. Herein, we present the key molecular mechanisms of ferroptosis, describe the crosstalk between ferroptosis and tumour-associated signalling pathways, and discuss the potential applications of ferroptosis in the context of systemic therapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy. PMID: 33514910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Obesity-associated deficits in inhibitory control are phenocopied to mice through gut microbiota changes in one-carbon and aromatic amino acids metabolic pathways.

Sun, 31/01/2021 - 13:04
Related Articles Obesity-associated deficits in inhibitory control are phenocopied to mice through gut microbiota changes in one-carbon and aromatic amino acids metabolic pathways. Gut. 2021 Jan 29;: Authors: Arnoriaga-Rodríguez M, Mayneris-Perxachs J, Contreras-Rodríguez O, Burokas A, Ortega-Sanchez JA, Blasco G, Coll C, Biarnés C, Castells-Nobau A, Puig J, Garre-Olmo J, Ramos R, Pedraza S, Brugada R, Vilanova JC, Serena J, Barretina J, Gich J, Pérez-Brocal V, Moya A, Fernández-Real X, Ramio-Torrentà L, Pamplona R, Sol J, Jové M, Ricart W, Portero-Otin M, Maldonado R, Fernández-Real JM Abstract BACKGROUND: Inhibitory control (IC) is critical to keep long-term goals in everyday life. Bidirectional relationships between IC deficits and obesity are behind unhealthy eating and physical exercise habits. METHODS: We studied gut microbiome composition and functionality, and plasma and faecal metabolomics in association with cognitive tests evaluating inhibitory control (Stroop test) and brain structure in a discovery (n=156), both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, and in an independent replication cohort (n=970). Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in mice evaluated the impact on reversal learning and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) transcriptomics. RESULTS: An interplay among IC, brain structure (in humans) and mPFC transcriptomics (in mice), plasma/faecal metabolomics and the gut metagenome was found. Obesity-dependent alterations in one-carbon metabolism, tryptophan and histidine pathways were associated with IC in the two independent cohorts. Bacterial functions linked to one-carbon metabolism (thyX,dut, exodeoxyribonuclease V), and the anterior cingulate cortex volume were associated with IC, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. FMT from individuals with obesity led to alterations in mice reversal learning. In an independent FMT experiment, human donor's bacterial functions related to IC deficits were associated with mPFC expression of one-carbon metabolism-related genes of recipient's mice. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of targeting obesity-related impulsive behaviour through the induction of gut microbiota shifts. PMID: 33514598 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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