Integrative Molecular Phenotyping
INTEGRATIVE MOLECULAR
PHENOTYPING
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL
BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
WHEELOCK LABORATORY

PubMed

Effects of Microbial Action and Moist-Heat Action on the Nonvolatile Components of Pu-Erh Tea, as Revealed by Metabolomics

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
J Agric Food Chem. 2022 Nov 28. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.2c05925. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMicrobial action and moist-heat action are crucial factors that influence the piling fermentation (PF) of Pu-erh tea. However, their effects on the quality of Pu-erh tea remain unclear. In this study, the effects of spontaneous PF (SPPF) and sterile PF (STPF) on the chemical profile of Pu-erh tea were investigated for the first time, and sun-dried green tea was used as a raw material to determine the factors contributing to the unique quality of Pu-erh tea. The results indicated that the SPPF-processed samples had a stale and mellow taste, whereas the STPF-processed samples had a sweet and mellow taste. Through metabolomics-based analysis, 21 potential markers of microbial action (including kaempferol, quercetin, and dulcitol) and 10 potential markers of moist-heat action (including ellagic acid, β-glucogallin, and ascorbic acid) were screened among 186 differential metabolites. Correlation analysis with taste revealed that metabolites upregulated by moist-heat and microbial action were the main factors contributing to the staler mellow taste of the SPPF-processed samples and the sweeter mellow taste of the STPF-processed samples. Kaempferol, quercetin, d-glucuronic acid, and dulcitol were the main active substances formed under microbial action. This study provides new knowledge regarding the quality formation mechanism of Pu-erh tea.PMID:36441948 | DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.2c05925

Essential amino acids as diagnostic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma based on metabolic analysis

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Oncotarget. 2022 Nov 22;13:1286-1298. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.28306.ABSTRACTMetabolomics, defined as the comprehensive identification of all small metabolites in a biological sample, has the power to shed light on phenotypic changes associated with various diseases, including cancer. To discover potential metabolomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the metabolomes of tumor and non-tumor tissue in 20 patients with primary HCC using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We also analyzed blood samples taken immediately before and 14 days after hepatectomy to identify associated changes in the serum metabolome. Marked changes were detected in the different quantity of 61 metabolites that could discriminate between HCC tumor and paired non-tumor tissue and additionally between HCC primary tumors and colorectal liver metastases. Among the 30 metabolites significantly upregulated in HCC tumors compared with non-tumor tissues, 10 were amino acids, and 7 were essential amino acids (leucine, valine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, lysine, and phenylalanine). Similarly, the serum metabolomes of HCC patients before hepatectomy revealed a significant increase in 16 metabolites, including leucine, valine, and tryptophan. Our results reveal striking differences in the metabolomes of HCC tumor tissue compared with non-tumor tissue, and identify the essential amino acids leucine, valine, and tryptophan as potential metabolic biomarkers for HCC.PMID:36441784 | DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.28306

Changes of serum metabolites levels during neoadjuvant chemoradiation and prediction of the pathological response in locally advanced rectal cancer

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Metabolomics. 2022 Nov 28;18(12):99. doi: 10.1007/s11306-022-01959-8.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Previous studies have explored prediction value of serum metabolites in neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NCRT) response for rectal cancer. To date, limited literature is available for serum metabolome changes dynamically through NCRT.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore temporal change pattern of serum metabolites during NCRT, and potential metabolic biomarkers to predict the pathological response to NCRT in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients.METHODS: Based on dynamic UHPLC-QTOF-MS untargeted metabolomics design, this study included 106 LARC patients treated with NCRT. Biological samples of the enrolled patients were collected in five consecutive time-points. Untargeted metabolomics was used to profile serum metabolic signatures from LARC patients. Then, we used fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) to explore temporal change patterns in metabolites cluster and identify monotonously changing metabolites during NCRT. Repeated measure analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and multilevel partial least-squares discriminant analysis (ML-PLS-DA) were performed to select metabolic biomarkers. Finally, a panel of dynamic differential metabolites was used to build logistic regression prediction models.RESULTS: Metabolite profiles showed a clearly tendency of separation between different follow-up panels. We identified two clusters of 155 serum metabolites with monotonously changing patterns during NCRT (74 decreased metabolites and 81 increased metabolites). Using RM-ANOVA and ML-PLS-DA, 8 metabolites (L-Norleucine, Betaine, Hypoxanthine, Acetylcholine, 1-Hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, Glycerophosphocholine, Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid, N-Acetyl-L-alanine) were further identified as dynamic differential biomarkers for predicting NCRT sensitivity. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of prediction model combined with the baseline measurement was 0.54 (95%CI = 0.43 ~ 0.65). By incorporating the variability indexes of 8 dynamic differential metabolites, the prediction model showed better discrimination performance than baseline measurement, with AUC = 0.67 (95%CI 0.57 ~ 0.77), 0.64 (0.53 ~ 0.75), 0.60 (0.50 ~ 0.71), and 0.56 (0.45 ~ 0.67) for the variability index of difference, linear slope, ratio, and standard deviation, respectively.CONCLUSION: This study identified eight metabolites as dynamic differential biomarkers to discriminate NCRT-sensitive and resistant patients. The changes of metabolite level during NCRT show better performance in predicting NCRT sensitivity. These findings highlight the clinical significance of metabolites variabilities in metabolomics analysis.PMID:36441416 | DOI:10.1007/s11306-022-01959-8

The stereoselective metabolic disruption of cypermethrin on rats by a sub-acute study based on metabolomics

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Nov 28. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-24359-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDue to the massive application of cypermethrin (CYP) for pest control in China, the adverse effects on non-target organisms have aroused great attention. However, comparative studies between its different stereoisomers remain scarce, especially for metabolism perturbations. Herein, the rats were administered α-CYP, β-CYP, and θ-CYP by gavage at doses of 8.5, 29.2, and 25.0 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 28 consecutive days. By blood examination, significant changes in liver and renal function parameters were observed in rats exposed to all three CYPs. The stereoisomeric selectivity in metabolic disturbances was assessed based on a metabolomic strategy via multivariate analysis and pathway analysis. The results demonstrated that amino acid and glycolipid metabolism were disrupted in all CYP groups. Among them, the most significant changes in the metabolic phenotype were observed in the θ-CYP group, with 56 differential metabolites enriched in 9 differential metabolic pathways. At the same time, the endogenous metabolite trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), which is closely linked to the gut microbiota, was also significantly elevated in this group. Gender differences were found in α- and θ-CYP-exposed rats, with perturbations in amino acid and glucose metabolism of greater concern in females and lipid metabolism of greater concern in males. Overall, β-CYP exhibited a lower risk of metabolic perturbations than α-CYP or θ-CYP, which helps to screen suitable agrochemical products for green agricultural development.PMID:36441315 | DOI:10.1007/s11356-022-24359-w

Urinary volatile Organic compounds in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and NAFLD-T2DM coexistence

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Metabolomics. 2022 Nov 28;18(12):98. doi: 10.1007/s11306-022-01960-1.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence have shown a significant correlation between urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile and the manifestation of several physiological and pathological states, including liver diseases. Previous studies have investigated the urinary metabolic signature as a non-invasive tool for the early discrimination between non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which nowadays represents one of the most important challenges in this context, feasible only by carrying out liver biopsy.OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in the urinary VOCs profiles of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects and NAFLD/T2DM patients.METHODS: Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to profile the urinary VOCs. Urine samples were analysed both under acid and alkaline conditions, to obtain a range of urinary volatiles with different physicochemical properties.RESULTS: Urinary VOCs profiles of 13 NAFLD patients, 13 T2DM subjects and 13 NAFLD/T2DM patients were investigated by multivariate and univariate data analysis techniques which allowed to identify 21 volatiles under alkaline conditions able to describe the NAFLD/T2DM group concerning the other two groups.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that VOCs signatures can improve the knowledge of the pathological condition where NAFLD coexists with T2DM and discovering new features that are not simply the sum of the two diseases. These preliminary findings may be considered as hypothesis-generating, to be clearly confirmed by larger prospective investigations.PMID:36441279 | DOI:10.1007/s11306-022-01960-1

An integrative GC-MS and LC-MS metabolomics platform determination of the metabolite profile of <em>Bombax ceiba</em> L. root, and in silico &amp; in vitro evaluation of its antibacterial &amp; antidiabetic activities

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Nat Prod Res. 2022 Nov 28:1-6. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2022.2149519. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe Bombax ceiba L. tree is a member of the family Bombacaceae and the genus Bombax. Both Chinese and Indian traditional medicine have made extensive use of it in the treatment of sickness. Its chemical composition is still a mystery. B. ceiba roots methanol extract (BCRME) was analyzed by different chromatographic analytical techniques in order to identify its major chemical constituents. Twelve compounds and six compounds were identified from GC-MS and LC-MS analysis, respectively. This is the first report on the presence of lathodoratin, cedrene, 4H-1-benzopyran-4-one,8-[{dimethylamino} methyl]-7-methoxy-3-methyl-2-phenyl, asiatic acid, and (E)-2,4,4'-trihydroxylchalcone in B. ceiba roots. Methanol extract demonstrated noteworthy antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC96) (MIC: 100 µg/mL) compare to antibiotic ampicillin (MIC: 250 µg/mL) as well as the highest α-amylase inhibition (IC50=26.91 µg/mL) and α-glucosidase inhibition (IC50=21.21 µg/mL) effects, molecular docking study confirmed these findings, with some compounds having a very high docking score.PMID:36441059 | DOI:10.1080/14786419.2022.2149519

Integrative Analysis of Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Data for Identification of Pathways Related to Matrine-Induced Hepatotoxicity

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Chem Res Toxicol. 2022 Nov 28. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.2c00264. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMatrine (MT) is a major bioactive compound extracted from Sophorae tonkinensis. However, the clinical application of MT is relatively restricted due to its potentially toxic effects, especially hepatotoxicity. Although MT-induced liver injury has been reported, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, transcriptomics and metabolomics were applied to investigate the hepatotoxicity of MT in mice. The results indicated that liver injury occurred when the administration of MT (30 or 60 mg/kg, i.g) lasted for 2 weeks, including dramatically increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), etc. The metabolomic results revealed that steroid biosynthesis, purine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism were involved in the occurrence and development of MT-induced hepatotoxicity. Further, the transcriptomic data indicated that the downregulation of NSDHL with CYP51, FDFT1, and DHCR7, involved in steroid biosynthesis, resulted in a lower level of cholic acid. Besides, Gstps and Nat8f1 were related to the disorder of glutathione metabolism, and HMGCS1 could be treated as the marker gene of the development of MT-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, other metabolites, such as taurine, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and inosine monophosphate (IMP), also made a contribution to the boosting of MT-induced hepatotoxicity. In this work, our results provide clues for the mechanism investigation of MT-induced hepatotoxicity, and several biomarkers (metabolites and genes) closely related to the liver injury caused by MT are also provided. Meanwhile, new insights into the understanding of the development of MT-induced hepatotoxicity or other monomer-induced hepatotoxicity were also provided.PMID:36440846 | DOI:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.2c00264

Free triiodothyronine levels and age influences the metabolic profile and COVID-19 severity parameters in euthyroid and levothyroxine-treated patients

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 Nov 9;13:1025032. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.1025032. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTMetabolic reprogramming is required to fight infections and thyroid hormones are key regulators of metabolism. We have analyzed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: 40 euthyroid and 39 levothyroxine (LT4)-treated patients in the ward and 29 euthyroid and 9 LT4-treated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), the baseline characteristics, laboratory data, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), the FT3/FT4 ratio, 11 antiviral cytokines and 74 metabolomic parameters. No evidence for significant differences between euthyroid and LT4-treated patients were found in the biochemical, metabolomic and cytokines parameters analyzed. Only TSH (p=0.009) and ferritin (p=0.031) showed significant differences between euthyroid and LT4-treated patients in the ward, and TSH (p=0.044) and FT4 (p=0.012) in the ICU. Accordingly, severity and mortality were similar in euthyroid and LT4-treated patients. On the other hand, FT3 was negatively related to age (p=0.012), independently of sex and body mass index in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients with low FT3 and older age showed a worse prognosis and higher levels of the COVID-19 severity markers IL-6 and IL-10 than patients with high FT3. IL-6 negatively correlated with FT3 (p=0.023) independently of age, body mass index and sex, whereas IL-10 positively associated with age (p=0.035) independently of FT3, body mass index and sex. A metabolomic cluster of 6 parameters defined low FT3 ward patients. Two parameters, esterified cholesterol (p=4.1x10-4) and small HDL particles (p=6.0x10-5) correlated with FT3 independently of age, body mass index and sex, whereas 3-hydroxybutyrate (p=0.010), acetone (p=0.076), creatinine (p=0.017) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) diameter (p=8.3x10-3) were associated to FT3 and also to age, with p-values of 0.030, 0.026, 0.017 and 8.3x10-3, respectively. In conclusion, no significant differences in FT3, cytokines, and metabolomic profile, or in severity and outcome of COVID-19, were found during hospitalization between euthyroid patients and hypothyroid patients treated with LT4. In addition, FT3 and age negatively correlate in COVID-19 patients and parameters that predict poor prognosis were associated with low FT3, and/or with age. A metabolomic cluster indicative of a high ketogenic profile defines non-critical hospitalized patients with low FT3 levels.PMID:36440226 | PMC:PMC9682171 | DOI:10.3389/fendo.2022.1025032

The metabolomics approach revealed a distinctive metabolomics pattern associated with hyperthyroidism treatment

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 Nov 10;13:1050201. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.1050201. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased thyroid hormone production, which impacts various processes, including metabolism and energy expenditure. Yet, the underlying mechanism and subsequent influence of these changes are unknown. Metabolomics is a broad analytical method that enables qualitative and quantitative examination of metabolite level changes in biological systems in response to various stimuli, pathologies, or treatments.OBJECTIVES: This study uses untargeted metabolomics to explore the potential pathways and metabolic patterns associated with hyperthyroidism treatment.METHODS: The study consisted of 20 patients newly diagnosed with hyperthyroidism who were assessed at baseline and followed up after starting antithyroid treatment. Two blood samples were taken from each patient, pre (hyperthyroid state) and post-treatment (euthyroid state). Hyperthyroid and euthyroid states were identified based on thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. The metabolic alteration associated with antithyroid therapy was investigated using liquid chromatography- high-resolution mass spectrometry. The untargeted metabolomics data was analyzed using both univariate and multivariate analyses using MetaboAnalyst v5.0. The significant metabolic pattern was identified using the lab standard pipeline, which included molecular annotation in the Human Metabolome Database, LipidMap, LipidBlast, and METLIN. The identified metabolites were examined using pathway and network analyses and linked to cellular metabolism.RESULTS: The results revealed a strong group separation between the pre- and post-hyperthyroidism treatment (Q2 = 0.573, R2 = 0.995), indicating significant differences in the plasma metabolome after treatment. Eighty-three mass ions were significantly dysregulated, of which 53 and 30 characteristics were up and down-regulated in the post-treatment compared to the pre-treatment group, respectively. The medium-chain acylcarnitines, octanoylcarnitine, and decanoylcarnitine, previously found to rise in hyperthyroid patients, were among the down-regulated metabolites, suggesting that their reduction could be a possible biomarker for monitoring euthyroid restoration. Kynurenine is a downregulated tryptophan metabolite, indicating that the enzyme kynurenine 3-hydroxylase, inhibited in hyperthyroidism, is back functioning. L-cystine, a cysteine dimer produced from cysteine oxidation, was among the down-regulated metabolites, and its accumulation is considered a sign of oxidative stress, which was reported to accompany hyperthyroidism; L-cystine levels dropped, this suggests that the plasma level of L-cystine can be used to monitor the progress of euthyroid state restoration.CONCLUSION: The plasma metabolome of patients with hyperthyroidism before and after treatments revealed differences in the abundance of several small metabolites. Our findings add to our understanding of hyperthyroidism's altered metabolome and associated metabolic processes and shed light on acylcarnitines as a new biomarker for treatment monitoring in conjunction with thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone.PMID:36440210 | PMC:PMC9685425 | DOI:10.3389/fendo.2022.1050201

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-induced perturbative changes in microbial communities and metabolic pathways in rats

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Microbiol. 2022 Nov 10;13:1034839. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.1034839. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Obesity has become a global health and socioeconomic problem because of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the two most commonly used strategies for weight loss, which have been proven to benefit from gut microbiota restoration.METHODS: Rats received SG, RYGB, and sham operations for 10 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the fecal microbiota was analyzed using 16s rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, the shift in the plasma metabolism of rats that underwent RYGB surgery was analyzed using untargeted metabolomics. The crosstalk between microbiome and metabolites was revealed using metabolic pathway enrichment and integrated analysis.RESULT: The SG surgery induced a modest shift in the gut microbiota relative to the RYGB. RYGB significantly decreased the alpha diversity and Firmicutes/Bacteroides (F/B) ratio and increased the proportion of Escherichia, Bacteroides, and Akkermansia genera compared to sham and SG operations. The predicted function of gut microbiota revealed that the RYGB surgery uniquely enhanced the capability of linoleic acid and sphingolipid metabolism. Furthermore, the circulating serine, phosphatidylcholine (PC) 20:5/22:5, riboflavin, L-carnitine, and linoleic acid were evaluated after RYGB surgery. In addition, the metabolic pathway enrichment and integrated analysis suggest that the RYGB induced Escherichia, Bacteroides, and Akkermansia might inhibit the sphingonine and phytosphingosine metabolisms from serine and promote the PC (20:5/22:5) metabolism to produce linoleic acid.CONCLUSION: This comprehensive analysis not only revealed the difference in the gut microbiota shifts after SG and RYGB but also discovered the perturbative changes in microbial communities and metabolic pathways after RYGB surgery, which provided clues for improving the beneficial effect of RYGB in metabolic disease intervention via regulating bacterial-metabolite crosstalk.PMID:36439854 | PMC:PMC9685675 | DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2022.1034839

Metabonomics reveals that entomopathogenic nematodes mediate tryptophan metabolites that kill host insects

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Microbiol. 2022 Nov 10;13:1042145. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.1042145. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTThe entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Steinernema feltiae, which carries the symbiotic bacterium Xenorhabdus bovienii in its gut, is an important biocontrol agent. This EPN could produce a suite of complex metabolites and toxin proteins and lead to the death of host insects within 24-48 h. However, few studies have been performed on the key biomarkers released by EPNs to kill host insects. The objective of this study was to examine what substances produced by EPNs cause the death of host insects. We found that all densities of nematode suspensions exhibited insecticidal activities after hemocoelic injection into Galleria mellonella larvae. EPN infection 9 h later led to immunosuppression by activating insect esterase activity, but eventually, the host insect darkened and died. Before insect immunity was activated, we applied a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach to determine the hemolymph of the wax moth G. mellonella infected by EPNs. The results indicated that the tryptophan (Trp) pathway of G. mellonella was significantly activated, and the contents of kynurenine (Kyn) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) were markedly increased. Additionally, 3-HAA was highly toxic to G. mellonella and resulted in corrected mortalities of 62.50%. Tryptophan metabolites produced by EPNs are a potential marker to kill insects, opening up a novel line of inquiry into exploring the infestation mechanism of EPNs.PMID:36439848 | PMC:PMC9686292 | DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2022.1042145

Vancomycin-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis aggravates allergic rhinitis in mice by altered short-chain fatty acids

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Microbiol. 2022 Nov 1;13:1002084. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.1002084. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore how gut microbiota dysbiosis affects allergic rhinitis (AR) and whether short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a role in this process.METHODS: A mouse gut microbiota dysbiosis model was established by adding vancomycin to drinking water for 2 weeks before ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. Then an OVA-alum AR mouse model was established by intraperitoneal OVA injection followed by nasal excitation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to observe pathological changes in nasal and colon tissues of AR mice. Serum levels of total-IgE, OVA-sIgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and TGF-β1 were measured. The composition and diversity of the mouse gut microbiota were observed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Levels of SCFAs in feces were determined using SCFA-targeted metabolomics. Sodium butyrate (NaB) was added daily to mice on a low-fiber basal diet 2 weeks before the first sensitization, until the end of the study.RESULTS: After gut microbiota dysbiosis, serum levels of the total IgE, OVA-sIgE, IL-4, and IL-5 in AR mice were significantly increased, compared with the control group. The composition and diversity of gut microbiota were significantly altered after gut microbiota dysbiosis, with the fecal SCFAs significantly reduced as well. The reduced bacterial genera after gut microbiota dysbiosis, such as Ruminococcus and Lactobacillus, were significantly and positively correlated with SCFAs. In contrast, the increased genera in the Van group, such as Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella, were significantly negatively correlated with SCFAs in feces. NaB treatment significantly reduced total-IgE, OVA-sIgE, IL-4, and IL-5 levels in serum, and inflammatory infiltration of the nasal and colon mucosa. In addition, serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 increased significantly after NaB treatment. Foxp3 protein in the colon was upregulated considerably after NaB intervention.CONCLUSION: Vancomycin-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis increased susceptibility and severity of AR, which is significantly related to reduced SCFA-producing bacteria, fecal SCFAs, and specific bacterial taxa. In addition, it was found that NaB alleviated low dietary fiber base-fed symptoms and immune status in AR mice.PMID:36439824 | PMC:PMC9687373 | DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2022.1002084

The impact of dietary fibers on <em>Clostridioides difficile</em> infection in a mouse model

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022 Nov 9;12:1028267. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.1028267. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTDiets rich in fiber may provide health benefits and regulate the gut microbiome, which affects the immune system. However, the role of dietary fiber in Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is controversial. Here, we investigated the use of fermentable fibers, such as inulin or pectin, to replace the insoluble fiber cellulose to explore how dietary fiber affects C. difficile-induced colitis in mice through intestinal microecology and metabolomics. Using C. difficile VPI 10463, we generated a mouse model of antibiotic-induced CDI. We evaluated disease outcomes and the microbial community among mice fed two fermentable fibers (inulin or pectin) versus the insoluble fiber cellulose. We analyzed and compared the gut microbiota, intestinal epithelium, cytokine levels, immune responses, and metabolites between the groups. Severe histological injury and elevated cytokine levels were observed in colon tissues after infection. Different diets showed different effects, and pectin administration protected intestinal epithelial permeability. Pectin also steadily increased the diversity of the microbiome and decreased the levels of C. difficile-induced markers of inflammation in serum and colonic tissues. The pectin group showed a higher abundance of Lachnospiraceae and a lower abundance of the conditionally pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae than the cellulose group with infection. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the cecal contents was also higher in the pectin group than in the cellulose group. Pectin exerted its effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway, which was confirmed by using the AhR agonist FICZ and the inhibitor CH2223191. Our results show that pectin alters the microbiome and metabolic function and triggers a protective immune response.PMID:36439215 | PMC:PMC9682084 | DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2022.1028267

Update on gut microbiota in cardiovascular diseases

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022 Nov 10;12:1059349. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.1059349. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTIn recent years, due to the development and widespread utilization of metagenomic sequencing and metabolomics, the relationship between gut microbiota and human cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has received extensive attention. A growing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between gut microbiota and CVDs, such as coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension (HTN) and heart failure (HF). It has also been revealed that intestinal flora-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bile acids (BAs), are also related to the development, prevention, treatment and prognosis of CVDs. In this review, we presented and summarized the recent findings on the relationship between gut microbiota and CVDs, and concluded several currently known gut microbiota-related metabolites and the occurrence and development of CVDs.PMID:36439214 | PMC:PMC9684171 | DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2022.1059349

<em>Buyang Huanwu</em> decoction affects gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in a ZDF rat model of co-morbid type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity: An integrated metabolomics analysis

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Chem. 2022 Nov 9;10:1036380. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2022.1036380. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease associated with many severe complications such as blindness, amputation, renal failure, and cardiovascular disease. Currently, the prevention and treatment of T2DM is a major global challenge as the number of aging and obese people is increasing. Traditional Chinese medicine offers the advantages of multi-target holistic and individual treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, most of the TCMs for T2DM are not scientifically evaluated. Here, Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD), a widely used TCM formula, was used to explore scientific pharmacological activity against T2DM in rat models. First, BYHWD exhibited excellent inhibitory actions against body fat accumulation and increased blood triglyceride levels, and a high-fat diet (HFD) induced blood glucose elevation in diabetic rats. Moreover, 16S rDNA sequencing of fecal samples identified the distinct changes in the community composition of gut flora following BYHWD treatment, displayed as significantly increased Bacteroidetes and dramatically decreased Firmicutes at the phyla level, and the remarkable increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus and Blautia. Additionally, lipid metabolomics based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a significant shift of lipid metabolites in the liver after BYHWD treatment. Notably, these differential lipid metabolites were particularly involved in biological processes such as cholesterol metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, insulin resistance, arachidonic acid metabolism, and alpha-linoleic acid metabolism. Importantly, Spearman correlation analyses suggested an association between disturbed gut microbiota and altered lipid metabolites. Moreover, they were also closely associated with the bioactivities of BYHWD to reduce the blood lipid and blood glucose levels. Collectively, these results suggest that BYHWD could meliorate gut microbiota dysbiosis and lipid metabolite alterations induced by the HFD in diabetic rats. These results not only provide a novel perspective on understanding the mechanisms underlying BYHWD bioactivity against T2DM but also suggest the use of advanced systems biology methods to reveal some unknown scientific laws in TCM theories.PMID:36438869 | PMC:PMC9682010 | DOI:10.3389/fchem.2022.1036380

Metabolomics-driven strain improvement: A mini review

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Mol Biosci. 2022 Nov 9;9:1057709. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2022.1057709. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTIn recent years, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has been established as a powerful and versatile technique for studying cellular metabolism by comprehensive analysis of metabolites in the cell. Although there are many scientific reports on the use of metabolomics for the elucidation of mechanism and physiological changes occurring in the cell, there are surprisingly very few reports on its use for the identification of rate-limiting steps in a synthetic biological system that can lead to the actual improvement of the host organism. In this mini review, we discuss different strategies for improving strain performance using metabolomics data and compare the application of metabolomics-driven strain improvement techniques in different host microorganisms. Finally, we highlight several success stories on the use of metabolomics-driven strain improvement strategies, which led to significant bioproductivity improvements.PMID:36438656 | PMC:PMC9681786 | DOI:10.3389/fmolb.2022.1057709

An anchored experimental design and meta-analysis approach to address batch effects in large-scale metabolomics

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Mol Biosci. 2022 Nov 9;9:930204. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2022.930204. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTUntargeted metabolomics studies are unbiased but identifying the same feature across studies is complicated by environmental variation, batch effects, and instrument variability. Ideally, several studies that assay the same set of metabolic features would be used to select recurring features to pursue for identification. Here, we developed an anchored experimental design. This generalizable approach enabled us to integrate three genetic studies consisting of 14 test strains of Caenorhabditis elegans prior to the compound identification process. An anchor strain, PD1074, was included in every sample collection, resulting in a large set of biological replicates of a genetically identical strain that anchored each study. This enables us to estimate treatment effects within each batch and apply straightforward meta-analytic approaches to combine treatment effects across batches without the need for estimation of batch effects and complex normalization strategies. We collected 104 test samples for three genetic studies across six batches to produce five analytical datasets from two complementary technologies commonly used in untargeted metabolomics. Here, we use the model system C. elegans to demonstrate that an augmented design combined with experimental blocks and other metabolomic QC approaches can be used to anchor studies and enable comparisons of stable spectral features across time without the need for compound identification. This approach is generalizable to systems where the same genotype can be assayed in multiple environments and provides biologically relevant features for downstream compound identification efforts. All methods are included in the newest release of the publicly available SECIMTools based on the open-source Galaxy platform.PMID:36438654 | PMC:PMC9682135 | DOI:10.3389/fmolb.2022.930204

<em>Inventa</em>: A computational tool to discover structural novelty in natural extracts libraries

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Mol Biosci. 2022 Nov 11;9:1028334. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2022.1028334. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTCollections of natural extracts hold potential for the discovery of novel natural products with original modes of action. The prioritization of extracts from collections remains challenging due to the lack of a workflow that combines multiple-source information to facilitate the data interpretation. Results from different analytical techniques and literature reports need to be organized, processed, and interpreted to enable optimal decision-making for extracts prioritization. Here, we introduce Inventa, a computational tool that highlights the structural novelty potential within extracts, considering untargeted mass spectrometry data, spectral annotation, and literature reports. Based on this information, Inventa calculates multiple scores that inform their structural potential. Thus, Inventa has the potential to accelerate new natural products discovery. Inventa was applied to a set of plants from the Celastraceae family as a proof of concept. The Pristimera indica (Willd.) A.C.Sm roots extract was highlighted as a promising source of potentially novel compounds. Its phytochemical investigation resulted in the isolation and de novo characterization of thirteen new dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes, five of them presenting a new 9-oxodihydro-β-agarofuran base scaffold.PMID:36438653 | PMC:PMC9692083 | DOI:10.3389/fmolb.2022.1028334

Integration of multi-omics technologies for crop improvement: Status and prospects

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Bioinform. 2022 Oct 19;2:1027457. doi: 10.3389/fbinf.2022.1027457. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTWith the rapid development of next-generation sequencing (NGS), multi-omics techniques have been emerging as effective approaches for crop improvement. Here, we focus mainly on addressing the current status and future perspectives toward omics-related technologies and bioinformatic resources with potential applications in crop breeding. Using a large amount of omics-level data from the functional genome, transcriptome, proteome, epigenome, metabolome, and microbiome, clarifying the interaction between gene and phenotype formation will become possible. The integration of multi-omics datasets with pan-omics platforms and systems biology could predict the complex traits of crops and elucidate the regulatory networks for genetic improvement. Different scales of trait predictions and decision-making models will facilitate crop breeding more intelligent. Potential challenges that integrate the multi-omics data with studies of gene function and their network to efficiently select desirable agronomic traits are discussed by proposing some cutting-edge breeding strategies for crop improvement. Multi-omics-integrated approaches together with other artificial intelligence techniques will contribute to broadening and deepening our knowledge of crop precision breeding, resulting in speeding up the breeding process.PMID:36438626 | PMC:PMC9689701 | DOI:10.3389/fbinf.2022.1027457

<em>SmDXS5</em>, acting as a molecular valve, plays a key regulatory role in the primary and secondary metabolism of tanshinones in <em>Salvia miltiorrhiza</em>

Mon, 28/11/2022 - 12:00
Front Plant Sci. 2022 Nov 10;13:1043761. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.1043761. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTRed sage, the dry root and rhizome of the herbaceous plant Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, is widely used for treating various diseases. The low content of tanshinones (terpenoids) has always restricted development of the S. miltiorrhiza industry. Here, we found that SmDXS5, a rate-limiting enzyme-coding gene located at the intersection of primary and secondary metabolism, can effectively change the transcription level and secondary metabolome profile of hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza, and significantly increase the content of tanshinones. Agrobacterium rhizogenes was used to infuse S. miltiorrhiza explants, and hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza expressing the SmDXS5 gene were obtained successfully. We identified 39 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) by metabolomics based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole exactive mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics. These DAMs might be key metabolites of SmDXS5 gene regulation. RNA sequencing was used to compare gene expression between the hairy roots of the SmDXS5 overexpressing group and the blank control (BC) group. Compared with the BC group, 18,646 differentially expressed genes were obtained: 8994 were upregulated and 9,652 downregulated. The combined transcriptome and metabolome analyses revealed that the mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways and synthase gene expression levels in the SmDXS5 overexpressing group were upregulated significantly, and the accumulation of tanshinone components was increased significantly, which promoted the process of glycolysis and promoted the transformation of carbohydrates to secondary metabolism. Moreover, the expression of SmPAL, the first rate-limiting enzyme gene of the phenylpropane pathway, decreased, reducing the accumulation of phenolic acid, another secondary metabolite. Therefore, SmDXS5 can be defined as a 'valve' gene, mainly responsible for regulating the distribution of primary and secondary metabolic flow of tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza, and for other secondary metabolic pathways. The discovery of SmDXS5 and its molecular valve function in regulating primary and secondary metabolism will provide a basis for the industrial production of tanshinone components, and cultivation of high quality S. miltiorrhiza.PMID:36438137 | PMC:PMC9685628 | DOI:10.3389/fpls.2022.1043761

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